The Agri Robo 水稻插秧机 Makes 植物ing Beautiful
With the decline in food self-sufficiency, a shrinking population of farmers, 劳动力老龄化, Japanese agriculture is facing a number of challenges. Kubota has worked closely with farmers to find solutions to many of these issues through research and development of agricultural machinery. 自动化水稻插秧被认为是一项特别的挑战, but Kubota has released the Agri Robo 水稻插秧机, 这是世界上第一台无需操作人员就能自动完成工作的机器. This machine carries on the Japanese rice farming tradition of “beautiful planting” while also providing “expert full-field planting” that saves farmers both effort and labor. Seeing the development of the Agri Robo 水稻插秧机 as another step forward in smart farming, Kubota is aiming toward further improvements in its technologies.
Changing How Rice is 植物ed in Japan
Declines in the workforce due to low birth rates and an aging population have become major social issues in Japan, and agriculture is no exception. Rice-transplanting work is particularly difficult, 因为它必须在短时间内完成，以确保水稻植株的均匀生长. 秧苗还必须由大量人员运输和补充, and many farms are facing labor shortages. 随着老年农民离开这个行业，新工人的数量减少, 每个职业农民照料的土地比例正在迅速增加, leading to an increase in workload. There has long been a demand for automation of rice-transplanting, 因为它需要特殊的技能，对初学者来说相当困难, and once planting is done, 这事不能重做. In response to these calls, Kubota began to work on development of an automatic rice-transplanter that enables anyone to plant beautifully and easily, which would contribute to savings in both effort and labor.
Seeing the Field from a Bird’s-Eye View
With rice-transplanters and beyond, 威尼斯wns888官方网站一直致力于广泛的农业机械的开发. We have based our products on technologies handed down across generations and constantly introduced new technologies to promote the mechanization of farm work. Kubota’s growth traces the history of agriculture in Japan, and this has enabled us to overcome numerous steps and achieve the automatic operation of rice-transplanters in a short development time of about two years.
Could “beautiful planting” be achieved with automated machinery? 为了减轻农民一直以来的移植工作负担, 并在种植上实现日本传统的美丽, 他们组建了一个团队，其中大部分是年轻的工程师，他们的努力将重塑未来. 每个人都被分配了任务来开发一种最终能够满足所有要求的设计, including developing the system to achieve automated operation, 操纵机器通过耕地的转向技术, and safety assurance for operation without human drivers.
如果秧苗可以种植在一个均匀间隔的方式，没有重叠, rice would grow uniformly and without waste. 此外, beauty in planting is a tradition with Japanese rice farming, and the beautiful planting that experienced farmers achieve cannot simply be replicated by making a rice-transplanter operate automatically. Multiple functions must be added, including planting in a straight line, 检测的障碍, and generation of field maps and planting routes.
Kubota’s approach to development of agricultural machinery that operates automatically without a human driver is carried out in three steps. The development of this industry-first automatic rice-transplanter marks the completion of step 2. 在这个步骤中, we identified a number of issues and took several measures to ensure safe driving even when no driver is on board, in addition to turning during automated operations. Doing so established the technologies for beautiful rice planting that can be done automatically. Kubota named this function, 哪一种秧苗从田的一角均匀地种在另一角, “expert full-field planting.“这使得任何人都可以很容易地漂亮地种植幼苗, just like an experienced farmer.
The key to achieving “expert full-field planting” was to change the perspective from which the cultivated field is viewed, 从侧面到上面. 直到现在, 种地的人会从干活的人的角度看它, taking in the vast field in front of them – that is, 从一边开始种植，然后从农田入口的另一边按顺序种植. 另一方面, Agri Robo水稻插秧机可以从鸟瞰的角度捕捉整个农田. It combines the brain’s ability to design rational routes with GPS positioning data to determine an efficient sequence for planting.
When people operate rice-transplanting machines, 有两个过程:往返种植和外围种植. 以一种方式重复往返种植，为外围种植留出空间, and then the latter is performed to complete the task. When planting is done by hand, seedlings may be planted overlapping each other, or extra space may be left, resulting in planting that is not visually appealing. 然而, the Agri Robo rice-transplanter generates a route that takes a different approach from humans. 除了上面的两个过程，它还增加了第三个过程:内部周边种植. Unlike planting by humans, 该路由调整行之间的间距，以便没有多余的空间, and it even calculates taking into account the ideal seedling supply and entry/exit point locations.
Round-trip planting by hand should ideally start diagonally across from the entry/exit point and finish at an odd-numbered row to start outer-perimeter planting. 然而, depending on field conditions, round-trip planting may need to be done in an even number of rows, as shown in the figure above. 在这种情况下, 机器必须转动两次，如图右上方所示, which can damage the field and disrupt the planting process.
另一方面, the Agri Robo rice-transplanter adjusts spacing between rows so that there is no unnecessary space, 创建一条路由，允许在任何可能的情况下使用偶数行进行内部往返种植. This minimizes damage to the field. Depending on the condition of the field, inner round-trip planting may be done in an odd number of rows. This is solved using the “no planting process” algorithm.
当这是使用内部往返种植奇数行, 最后一种方法是机器通过一行而不种植任何东西, 种植最后一行, then goes back to the route it passed. 这种种植方法是全新的，不像以前任何手工种植. By mapping the entire field with a bird’s eye view, Agri Robo插秧机就能想出这种合理的种植解决方案, which surprised even the engineers.
Pursuit of Astounding Beauty in 植物ing from Corner to Corner
实现这一“专家全领域种植”涉及许多挑战. This is because cultivated fields are not always perfect squares, but they come in various shapes and sizes. The ridges and paddy sluices* around fields can also be irregular parts that pose obstacles to straight planting. 解决这些问题的三个关键是地图生成、控制和安全.
The mapping function in particular required more advanced technology to accurately capture the size and shape of the field’s perimeter. This feature extracts the necessary points from location information obtained through GPS and generates the perimeter route. Simply connecting the GPS points plotted at intervals of several tens of centimeters would create zigzag lines. If the rice-transplanter automatically steers along those lines, it would have to make large steering movements, causing it to sway left and right. 这不仅会使转向不安全，还会扰乱种植. 为了解决这个问题, we optimally processed the positional data so that the rice-transplanter could move in a straight line, 威尼斯wnsr888优化了机器的设计，使底盘平稳移动而不晃动, creating the foundation for beautiful planting.
- A gate that controls the flow of water in a rice paddy.
When a paddy sluice or other obstacle is in the way, the Agri Robo rice-transplanter generates a route to avoid it and plant seedlings without overlapping. 避开障碍物需要在外围种植时绕道而行, and the machine assumes this detour route and leaves the planting area open for inner-perimeter planting, which would otherwise overlap if these steps were not taken. 这可以防止在种植工作中不必要的重叠幼苗. The engineers also focused on control features of the Agri Robo, including obstacle detection and the Safety Stop that automatically stops the machine if it deviates from the automated planting area. These features incorporate Kubota’s many years of control technologies and its precise innovations in pursuit of ease of use for farmers, 实现了Agri Robo插秧机的安全、美观种植功能.
Having achieved automated operation in rice-transplanters, Kubota is continuing its challenges in the next stage. Cultivated fields in Japan come in all shapes and sizes, and quite a few of them are complex. 威尼斯wnsr888的目标是提前水稻种植，以适应任何类型的土地, with planting that is both automated and beautiful. Achieving this goal requires constant trial and error. Japan is a small country with a complex topography, and its cultivated fields are created with particular ingenuity. Offering systems that support each field and each individual farmer will expand the scope of agriculture. To pave the way for the future of farming, Kubota will continue to advance its research and development while preserving the traditions of Japanese agriculture.